Google Chrome is a cross-platform web browser developed by Google. It was first released in 2008 for Microsoft Windows built with free software components from Apple WebKit and Mozilla Firefox.It was later ported to Linux, macOS, iOS, and Android where it is the default browser built into the OS. The browser is also the main component of Chrome OS, where it serves as the platform for web applications.
Most of Chrome’s source code comes from Google’s free and open-source software project Chromium, but Chrome is licensed as proprietary freeware.WebKit was the original rendering engine, but Google eventually forked it to create the Blink engine; all Chrome variants except iOS now use Blink.
As of March 2021, StatCounter estimates that Chrome has a 66% worldwide browser market share (after peaking at 72.38% in November 2018) on personal computers (PC), is also dominant on mobile, and has caught up with Safari on tablets (or about a percent-point below at 42.33%),and at 63.59% across all platforms combined. Because of this success, Google has expanded the “Chrome” brand name to other products: Chrome OS, Chromecast, Chromebook, Chromebit, Chromebox, and Chromebase.
- 2.1Bookmarks and settings synchronization
- 2.2Web standards support
- 2.7User interface
- 2.8Desktop shortcuts and apps
- 2.11Automatic web page translation
- 2.12Release channels, cycles and updates
- 2.13Color management
- 6Developing for Chrome
- 7See also
- 10External links
See also: History of Google
Google CEO Eric Schmidt opposed the development of an independent web browser for six years. He stated that “at the time, Google was a small company”, and he did not want to go through “bruising browser wars“. After co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page hired several Mozilla Firefox developers and built a demonstration of Chrome, Schmidt said that “It was so good that it essentially forced me to change my mind.”
In September 2004, rumors of Google building a web browser first appeared. Online journals and U.S. newspapers stated at the time that Google was hiring former Microsoft web developers among others. It also came shortly after the release of Mozilla Firefox 1.0, which was surging in popularity and taking market share from Internet Explorer, which had noted security problems.
Development of the browser began in 2006 spearheaded by Sundar Pichai.
The release announcement was originally scheduled for September 3, 2008, and a comic by Scott McCloud was to be sent to journalists and bloggers explaining the features within the new browser. Copies intended for Europe were shipped early and German blogger Philipp Lenssen of Google Blogoscoped made a scanned copy of the 38-page comic available on his website after receiving it on September 1, 2008. Google subsequently made the comic available on Google Books, and mentioned it on their official blog along with an explanation for the early release. The product was named “Chrome” as an initial development project code name, because it is associated with fast cars and speed. Google kept the development project name as the final release name, as a “cheeky” or ironic moniker, as one of the main aims was to minimize the user interface chrome.
An early version of Chromium for Linux, explaining the difference between Chrome and Chromium
The browser was first publicly released on September 2, 2008 for Windows XP and later, with 43 supported languages, officially a beta version, and as a stable public release on December 11, 2008. On the same day, a CNET news item drew attention to a passage in the Terms of Service statement for the initial beta release, which seemed to grant to Google a license to all content transferred via the Chrome browser. This passage was inherited from the general Google terms of service.Google responded to this criticism immediately by stating that the language used was borrowed from other products, and removed this passage from the Terms of Service.
Chrome quickly gained about 1% usage share. After the initial surge, usage share dropped until it hit a low of 0.69% in October 2008. It then started rising again and by December 2008, Chrome again passed the 1% threshold. In early January 2009, CNET reported that Google planned to release versions of Chrome for OS X and Linux in the first half of the year.The first official Chrome OS X and Linux developer previews were announced on June 4, 2009, with a blog post saying they were missing many features and were intended for early feedback rather than general use. In December 2009, Google released beta versions of Chrome for OS X and Linux. Google Chrome 5.0, announced on May 25, 2010, was the first stable release to support all three platforms.
Chrome was one of the twelve browsers offered on BrowserChoice.eu to European Economic Area users of Microsoft Windows in 2010.
Chrome initially used the WebKit rendering engine to display web pages. In 2013, they forked the WebCore component to create their own layout engine Blink. Based on WebKit, Blink only uses WebKit’s “WebCore” components, while substituting other components, such as its own multi-process architecture, in place of WebKit’s native implementationChrome is internally tested with unit testing, automated testing of scripted user actions, fuzz testing, as well as WebKit’s layout tests (99% of which Chrome is claimed to have passed), and against commonly accessed websites inside the Google index within 20–30 minutes. Google created Gears for Chrome, which added features for web developers typically relating to the building of web applications, including offline support. Google phased out Gears as the same functionality became available in the HTML5 standards.
On January 11, 2011, the Chrome product manager, Mike Jazayeri, announced that Chrome would remove H.264 video codec support for its HTML5 player, citing the desire to bring Google Chrome more in line with the currently available open codecs available in the Chromium project, which Chrome is based on. Despite this, on November 6, 2012, Google released a version of Chrome on Windows which added hardware-accelerated H.264 video decoding. In October 2013, Cisco announced that it was open-sourcing its H.264 codecs and would cover all fees required.
On February 7, 2012, Google launched Google Chrome Beta for Android 4.0 devices. On many new devices with Android 4.1 and later preinstalled, Chrome is the default browser. In May 2017, Google announced a version of Chrome for augmented reality and virtual reality devices.
Main article: Google Chrome version history
Google Chrome features a minimalistic user interface, with its user-interface principles later being implemented into other browsers. For example, the merging of the address bar and search bar into the omnibox or omnibar Chrome also has a reputation for strong browser performance.
Bookmarks and settings synchronization
Chrome allows users to synchronize their bookmarks, history, and settings across all devices with the browser installed by sending and receiving data through a chosen Google Account, which in turn updates all signed-in instances of Chrome. This can be authenticated either through Google credentials, or a sync passphrase.
Web standards support
The results of the Acid3 test on Google Chrome 4.0
The first release of Google Chrome passed both the Acid1 and Acid2 tests. Beginning with version 4.0, Chrome has passed all aspects of the Acid3 test.
In 2011, on the official CSS 2.1 test suite by standardization organization W3C, WebKit, the Chrome rendering engine, passes 89.75% (89.38% out of 99.59% covered) CSS 2.1 tests.
On the HTML5 web standards test, Chrome 41 scores 518 out of 555 points, placing it ahead of the five most popular desktop browsers. Chrome 41 on Android scores 510 out of 555 points. Chrome 44 scores 526, only 29 points less than the maximum score.
See also: Browser security
Chrome periodically retrieves updates of two blacklists (one for phishing and one for malware), and warns users when they attempt to visit a site flagged as potentially harmful. This service is also made available for use by others via a free public API called “Google Safe Browsing API”.
Chrome uses a process-allocation model to sandbox tabs. Using the principle of least privilege, each tab process cannot interact with critical memory functions (e.g. OS memory, user files) or other tab processes – similar to Microsoft’s “Protected Mode” used by Internet Explorer 9 or greater. The Sandbox Team is said to have “taken this existing process boundary and made it into a jail“. This enforces a computer security model whereby there are two levels of multilevel security (user and sandbox) and the sandbox can only respond to communication requests initiated by the user. On Linux sandboxing uses the seccomp mode.
In January 2015, TorrentFreak reported that using Chrome when connected to the internet using a VPN can be a serious security issue due to the browser’s support for WebRTC.
On September 9, 2016, it was reported that starting with Chrome 56, users will be warned when they visit insecure HTTP websites to encourage more sites to make the transition to HTTPS.
On December 4, 2018, Google announced its Chrome 71 release with new security features, including a built-in ad featuring system. In addition, Google also announced its plan to crack down on websites that make people involuntarily subscribe to mobile subscription plans.
On September 2, 2020, with the release of Chrome 85, Google extended support for Secure DNS in Chrome for Android. DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH), was designed to improve safety and privacy while browsing the web. Under the update, Chrome automatically switches to DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH), if the current DNS provider supports the feature.
Since 2008, Chrome has been faulted for not including a master password to prevent casual access to a user’s passwords. Chrome developers have indicated that a master password does not provide real security against determined hackers and have refused to implement one. Bugs filed on this issue have been marked “WontFix”. As of February 2014, Google Chrome asks the user to enter the Windows account password before showing saved passwords.
On Linux, Google Chrome/Chromium can store passwords in three ways:
Google Chrome/Chromium chooses which store to use automatically, based on the desktop environment in use.
Passwords stored in GNOME Keyring or KWallet are encrypted on disk, and access to them is controlled by dedicated daemon software. Passwords stored in plain text are not encrypted. Because of this, when either GNOME Keyring or KWallet is in use, any unencrypted passwords that have been stored previously are automatically moved into the encrypted store.
Support for using GNOME Keyring and KWallet was added in version 6, but using these (when available) was not made the default mode until version 12.
Although Google Chrome/Chromium chooses which store to use automatically, the store to use can also be specified with a command-line argument:
- –password-store=gnome (to use GNOME Keyring)
- –password-store=kwallet (to use KWallet)
- –password-store=basic (to use the plain text store)
As of version 45, the Google Chrome password manager is no longer integrated with Keychain, since the interoperability goal is no longer possible
No security vulnerabilities in Chrome were exploited in the three years of Pwn2Own from 2009 to 2011.
At Pwn2Own 2012, Chrome was defeated by a French team who used zero day exploits in the version of Flash shipped with Chrome to take complete control of a fully patched 64-bit Windows 7 PC using a booby-trapped website that overcame Chrome’s sandboxing.
Chrome was compromised twice at the 2012 CanSecWest Pwnium. Google’s official response to the exploits was delivered by Jason Kersey, who congratulated the researchers, noting “We also believe that both submissions are works of art and deserve wider sharing and recognition.” Fixes for these vulnerabilities were deployed within 10 hours of the submission.
A significant number of security vulnerabilities in Chrome occur in the Adobe Flash Player. For example, the 2016 Pwn2Own successful attack on Chrome relied on four security vulnerabilities. Two of the vulnerabilities were in Flash, one was in Chrome, and one was in the Windows kernel. In 2016, Google announced that it was planning to phase out Flash Player in Chrome, starting in version 53. The first phase of the plan is to disable Flash for ads and “background analytics”, with the ultimate goal of disabling it completely by the end of the year, except on specific sites that Google has deemed to be broken without it. Flash would then be re-enabled with the exclusion of ads and background analytics on a site-by-site basis.
Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from 2013 to 2016, detail the capabilities of the CIA, such as the ability to compromise web browsers (including Google Chrome).
Malware blocking and ad blocking
Google introduced download scanning protection in Chrome 17.In February 2018, Google introduced an ad blocking feature based on recommendations from the Interactive Advertising Bureau. Sites that employ invasive ads are given a 30-day warning, after which their ads will be blocked. Consumer Reports recommended users install dedicated ad-blocking tools instead, which offer increased security against malware and tracking.
- Chrome supported, up to version 45, plug-ins with the Netscape Plugin Application Programming Interface (NPAPI), so that plug-ins (for example Adobe Flash Player) run as unrestricted separate processes outside the browser and cannot be sandboxed as tabs are. ActiveX is not supported. Since 2010, Adobe Flash has been integral to Chrome and does not need be installed separately. Flash is kept up to date as part of Chrome’s own updates. Java applet support was available in Chrome with Java 6 update 12 and above.Support for Java under OS X was provided by a Java Update released on May 18, 2010.
- On August 12, 2009, Google introduced a replacement for NPAPI that is more portable and more secure called Pepper Plugin API (PPAPI). The default bundled PPAPI Flash Player (or Pepper-based Flash Player) was available on Chrome OS first, then replaced the NPAPI Flash Player on Linux from Chrome version 20, on Windows from version 21 (which also reduced Flash crashes by 20%), and eventually came to OS X at version 23.
- On September 23, 2013, Google announced that it would be deprecating and then removing NPAPI support. NPAPI support was removed from Linux in Chrome release 35.NPAPI plugins like Java can no longer work in Chrome (but there are workarounds for Flash by using PPAPI Flash Player on Linux including for Chromium).
- On April 14, 2015, Google released Chrome v42, disabling the NPAPI by default. This makes plugins that do not have a PPAPI plugin counterpart incompatible with Chrome, such as Java, Silverlight and Unity. However, NPAPI support could be enabled through the chrome://flagspermanent dead link] menu, until the release of version 45 on September 1, 2015, that removed NPAPI support entirely.
“Incognito mode” redirects here. For other uses, see Incognito.Google Chrome Incognito mode message
The private browsing feature called Incognito mode prevents the browser from permanently storing any history information, cookies, site data, or form inputs.Downloaded files and bookmarks will be stored. In addition, user activity is not hidden from visited websites or the Internet service provider.
Incognito mode is similar to the private browsing feature in other web browsers. It does not prevent saving in all windows: “You can switch between an incognito window and any regular windows you have open. You’ll only be in incognito mode when you’re using the incognito window”.
In June 2015, the Debian developer community discovered that Chromium 43 and Chrome 43 were programmed to download the Hotword Shared Module, which could enable the OK Google voice recognition extension, although by default it was “off”. This raised privacy concerns in the media.
User tracking concerns
Chrome sends details about its users and their activities to Google through both optional and non-optional user tracking mechanisms.
Some of the tracking mechanisms can be optionally enabled and disabled through the installation interface and through the browser’s options dialog. Unofficial builds, such as SRWare Iron, seek to remove these features from the browser altogether.The RLZ feature is not included in the Chromium browser either.
In March 2010, Google devised a new method to collect installation statistics: the unique ID token included with Chrome is now used for only the first connection that Google Update makes to its server.
The optional suggestion service included in Google Chrome has been criticized because it provides the information typed into the Omnibox to the search provider before the user even hits return. This allows the search engine to provide URL suggestions, but also provides them with web use information tied to an IP address.
The optional feature to use a web service to help resolve spelling errors has privacy implications.
A 2019 review by Washington Post technology columnist Geoffrey A. Fowler found that in a typical week of browsing, Chrome allowed thousands of more cookies to be stored than Mozilla Firefox. Fowler pointed out that because of its advertising businesses, despite the privacy controls it offers users, Google is a major producer of third-party cookies and has a financial interest in collecting user data; he recommended switching to Firefox, Apple Safari, or Chromium-based Brave.
Chrome’s future switch to FLoC has drawn criticism from DuckDuckGo, Brave and the Electronic Frontier Foundation
Do Not Track
In February 2012, Google announced that Chrome would implement the Do Not Track (DNT) standard to inform websites the user’s desire not to be tracked. The protocol was implemented in version 23. In line with the W3’s draft standard for DNT, it is turned off by default in Chrome.
Like most major web browsers, Chrome uses DNS prefetching to speed up website lookups, as do other browsers like Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer (called DNS Pre-resolution), and in Opera as a UserScript (not built-in).
Chrome formerly used their now-deprecated SPDY protocol instead of only HTTP when communicating with servers that support it, such as Google services, Facebook, Twitter. SPDY support was removed in Chrome version 51. This was due to SPDY being replaced by HTTP/2, a standard that was based upon it.
In November 2019, Google said it was working on several “speed badging” systems that let visitors know why a page is taking time to show up. The variations include simple text warnings and more subtle signs that indicate a site is slow. No date has been given for when the badging system will be included with the Chrome browser.
Screenshot of a Chrome browser crash
A multi-process architecture is implemented in Chrome where, by default, a separate process is allocated to each site instance and plugin. This procedure is termed process isolation, and raises security and stability by preventing tasks from interfering with each other. An attacker successfully gaining access to one application gains access to no others, and failure in one instance results in a Sad Tab screen of death, similar to the well-known Sad Mac, but only one tab crashes instead of the whole application. This strategy exacts a fixed per-process cost up front, but results in less memory bloat over time as fragmentation is confined to each instance and no longer needs further memory allocations.This architecture was later adopted in Safari and Firefox.
Chrome includes a process management utility called Task Manager which lets users see what sites and plugins are using the most memory, downloading the most bytes and overusing the CPU and provides the ability to terminate them. Chrome Version 23 ensures its users an improved battery life for the systems supporting Chrome’s GPU accelerated video decoding.
Google Chrome logos
2D motif from March 2011 until October 2015
Material Design motif used from September 2014 onward for mobile versions and October 2015 onward for desktop versions
By default, the main user interface includes back, forward, refresh/cancel and menu buttons. A home button is not shown by default, but can be added through the Settings page to take the user to the new tab page or a custom home page.
Tabs are the main component of Chrome’s user interface and have been moved to the top of the window rather than below the controls. This subtle change contrasts with many existing tabbed browsers which are based on windows and contain tabs. Tabs, with their state, can be transferred seamlessly between window containers by dragging. Each tab has its own set of controls, including the Omnibox.
The Omnibox is a URL box that combines the functions of both the address bar and search box. If a user enters the URL of a site previously searched from, Chrome allows pressing Tab to search the site again directly from the Omnibox. When a user starts typing in the Omnibox, Chrome provides suggestions for previously visited sites (based on the URL or in-page text), popular websites (not necessarily visited before – powered by Google Instant), and popular searches. Although Instant can be turned off, suggestions based on previously visited sites cannot be turned off. Chrome will also autocomplete the URLs of sites visited often. If a user types keywords into the Omnibox that don’t match any previously visited websites and presses enter, Chrome will conduct the search using the default search engine.
One of Chrome’s differentiating features is the New Tab Page, which can replace the browser home page and is displayed when a new tab is created. Originally, this showed thumbnails of the nine most visited websites, along with frequent searches, recent bookmarks, and recently closed tabs; similar to Internet Explorer and Firefox with Google Toolbar, or Opera’s Speed Dial. In Google Chrome 2.0, the New Tab Page was updated to allow users to hide thumbnails they did not want to appear.
Starting in version 3.0, the New Tab Page was revamped to display thumbnails of the eight most visited websites. The thumbnails could be rearranged, pinned, and removed. Alternatively, a list of text links could be displayed instead of thumbnails. It also features a “Recently closed” bar that shows recently closed tabs and a “tips” section that displays hints and tricks for using the browser.
Chrome includes a bookmarks submenu that lists the user’s bookmarks, provides easy access to Chrome’s Bookmark Manager, and allows the user to toggle a bookmarks bar on or off.
For web developers, Chrome features an element inspector (Inspect Element), similar to the Firebug browser extension, which allows users to look into the DOM and see what makes up the webpage.
Chrome has special URLs that load application-specific pages instead of websites or files on disk. Chrome also has a built-in ability to enable experimental features. Originally called
about:labs, the address was changed to
about:flags to make it less obvious to casual users.
In March 2011, Google introduced a new simplified logo to replace the previous 3D logo that had been used since the project’s inception. Google designer Steve Rura explained the company reasoning for the change: “Since Chrome is all about making your web experience as easy and clutter-free as possible, we refreshed the Chrome icon to better represent these sentiments. A simpler icon embodies the Chrome spirit – to make the web quicker, lighter, and easier for all.”
In September 2013, Google started making Chrome apps “For your desktop”. This meant offline access, desktop shortcuts, and less dependence on Chrome—apps launch in a window separate from Chrome, and look more like native applications.
On January 2, 2019, Google introduced Native Dark Theme for Chrome on Windows 10.
Desktop shortcuts and apps
Chrome allows users to make local desktop shortcuts that open web applications in the browser. The browser, when opened in this way, contains none of the regular interface except for the title bar, so as not to “interrupt anything the user is trying to do”. This allows web applications to run alongside local software (similar to Mozilla Prism and Fluid).
This feature, according to Google, would be enhanced with the Chrome Web Store, a one-stop web-based web applications directory which opened in December 2010.
Chrome Web Store
Main article: Chrome Web Store
Announced on December 7, 2010, the Chrome Web Store allows users to install web applications as extensions to the browser, although most of these extensions function simply as links to popular web pages and/or games, some of the apps like Springpad do provide extra features like offline access. The themes and extensions have also been tightly integrated into the new store, allowing users to search the entire catalog of Chrome extras.
The Chrome Web Store was opened on February 11, 2011, with the release of Google Chrome 9.0.
On September 9, 2009, Google enabled extensions by default on Chrome’s developer channel, and provided several sample extensions for testing. In December, the Google Chrome Extensions Gallery beta began with approximately 300 extensions. It was launched on January 25, 2010 along with Google Chrome 4.0, containing approximately 1500 extensions.
In 2014, Google started preventing some Windows users from installing extensions not hosted on the Chrome Web Store. The following year Google reported a “75% drop in customer support help requests for uninstalling unwanted extensions” which led them to expand this restriction to all Windows and Mac users. Under the terms of the EULA, Google can remove or disable any extensions from a user’s installation of Chrome.
See also: Category:Google Chrome extensions
- Adblock Plus
- Adblock for Chrome
- Cut the Rope
- Evernote Web
- Facebook Messenger
- Google Maps
- HTTPS Everywhere
- Pandora Radio
- Pixlr Express
- Privacy Badger
- Streamus (discontinued)
- Turn Off the Lights
- Stop Tony Meow
- uBlock Origin
Starting with Google Chrome 3.0, users can install themes to alter the appearance of the browser. Many free third-party themes are provided in an online gallery, accessible through a “Get themes” button in Chrome’s options.
Automatic web page translation
Starting with Google Chrome 4.1 the application added a built-in translation bar using Google Translate. Language translation is currently available for 52 languages. When Chrome detects a foreign language other than the user’s preferred language set during the installation time, it asks the user whether or not to translate.
Release channels, cycles and updates
The first production release on December 11, 2008, marked the end of the initial Beta test period and the beginning of production. Shortly thereafter, on January 8, 2009, Google announced an updated release system with three channels: Stable (corresponding to the traditional production), Beta, and Developer preview (also called the “Dev” channel). Where there were before only two channels: Beta and Developer, now there were three. Concurrently, all Developer channel users were moved to the Beta channel along with the promoted Developer release. Google explained that now the Developer channel builds would be less stable and polished than those from the initial Google Chrome’s Beta period. Beta users could opt back to the Developer channel as desired.
Each channel has its own release cycle and stability level. The Stable channel updated roughly quarterly, with features and fixes that passed “thorough” testing in the Beta channel. Beta updated roughly monthly, with “stable and complete” features migrated from the Developer channel. The Developer channel updated once or twice per week and was where ideas and features were first publicly exposed “(and sometimes fail) and can be very unstable at times”. [Quoted remarks from Google’s policy announcements.]Google Chrome Canary application icon
On July 22, 2010, Google announced it would ramp up the speed at which it releases new stable versions; the release cycles were shortened from quarterly to six weeks for major Stable updates. Beta channel releases now come roughly at the same rate as Stable releases, though approximately one month in advance, while Dev channel releases appear roughly once or twice weekly, allowing time for basic release-critical testing. This faster release cycle also brought a fourth channel: the “Canary” channel, updated daily from a build produced at 09:00 UTC from the most stable of the last 40 revisions. The name refers to the practice of using canaries in coal mines, so if a change “kills” Chrome Canary, it will be blocked from migrating down to the Developer channel, at least until fixed in a subsequent Canary build. Canary is “the most bleeding-edge official version of Chrome and somewhat of a mix between Chrome dev and the Chromium snapshot builds”. Canary releases run side by side with any other channel; it is not linked to the other Google Chrome installation and can therefore run different synchronization profiles, themes, and browser preferences. This ensures that fallback functionality remains even when some Canary updates may contain release-breaking bugs.It does not natively include the option to be the default browser, although on Windows and OS X it can be set through System Preferences. Canary was Windows-only at first; an OS X version was released on May 3, 2011.
The Chrome beta channel for Android was launched on January 10, 2013; like Canary, it runs side by side with the stable channel for Android. Chrome Dev for Android was launched on April 29, 2015.
All Chrome channels are automatically distributed according to their respective release cycles. The mechanism differs by platform. On Windows, it uses Google Update, and auto-update can be controlled via Group Policy. Alternatively, users may download a standalone installer of a version of Chrome that does not auto-update.On OS X, it uses Google Update Service, and auto-update can be controlled via the OS X “defaults” system. On Linux, it lets the system’s normal package management system supply the updates. This auto-updating behavior is a key difference from Chromium, the non-branded open-source browser which forms the core of Google Chrome. Because Chromium also serves as the pre-release development trunk for Chrome, its revisions are provided as source code and buildable snapshots are produced continuously with each new commit, requiring users to manage their own browser updates.
In March 2021, Google announced that starting with Chrome 94 in the third quarter of 2021, Google Chrome Stable releases will be made every four weeks, instead of six weeks as they have been since 2010. Also, Google announced a new release channel for system administrators and browser embedders with releases every eight weeks.
[…] Dowenlod Gmail App […]